Projects, Products and Research

I have worked on numerous projects at work, for research, in classes and during hackathons, and have always tried to solve real world problems to impact the lives of everyday people through purpose driven product design. I thrive in work environments that require lots of teamwork and collaboration, and strive to set high standards through the quality of my work. I am looking to work with engineering teams to expand my technical knowledge in a practical engineering application.

Some examples of my projects are listed below:


Robot Metabolism Project

Columbia University - Creative Machines Lab

Feb 2021 – Present

Research Assistant with Dr. Hod Lipson.
The Robot Metabolism Project is a modular robotics platform that can self-assemble, self-replicate, self-repair and self-improve. We developed a platform that can identify, harvest and integrate robot components to better itself. This work will push the boundaries of artficial life and modular robotics research. Our link has two actuators with an embedded optical sensor to track its absolute position in space. We built an interaction system using a server infrastructure.
• Manufactured and assembled hardware (servos and microcontrollers) of modular robot links (building blocks).
• Identified design improvements on Fusion360 and implemented control algorithms on Photon using C++ to ensure links moved precisely.

Robot Link
Crawling Triangle


Columbia Robotics Club

Feb 2021 – Present

• Created a virtual model of the rover and optimized design using SolidWorks.
• Simulated robot motion and control in an underwater environment on ROS gazebo using lift-drag plugin.
Next steps:
• Integrate computer simulation to a physical underwater robot.
• Write scripts in Python to implement publisher/listener methods that print the location, orientation and status of a single node.

Smart Bin Remover

Purdue University

Jan 2016 – May 2016

For our Senior Design Capstone Project, my team and I designed and built an innovative, fully autonomous delivery robot that can attach to the three most common types of waste bins and deliver the attached bin to a desired pick up location on trash day. I headed the programming of an Arduino microcontroller in C and integrated various sensors and “smart” technologies to remove all user interaction from the feedback control loop.
First, we defined the problem we were trying to solve, then we built a prototype mechanical system, tested the software and controls, and evaluated the results. We repeated these steps numerous times and, several iterations later, ended with a product that was completely different from what we had imagined. We looked at various aspects of the robot, such as ease-of-use for the end user, durability of our product, ability to integrate with the existing systems and ability to meet the design parameters set by our end user (the local Waste Management company). We also designed the charging pod and programmed the robot to find its way back to the base, where it would plug in and charge itself when not in use.
The robot is an artificially intelligent rational agent designed to safely drive waste to collection point and back to home base.
• Performance Measure: safe, fast, avoid bumps so waste doesn't spill
• Environment: roads, driveway, pedestrians, weather
• Actuators: DC motors (future: steering, brakes, turn signals, horn, etc)
• Sensors: date and time, ultrasonic and infrared proximity sensors, line following reflectance sensor (future: load cell to measure weight and tell if waste has been collected, cameras to avoid obstacles, GPS , speedometer, accelerometer, odometer, etc)
The Smart Bin Remover project placed 7th place (out of 49 total submissions) at the Mechanical Engineering Innovation Competition at Purdue University.
Watch Video | Pitch Deck | Photo Gallery

Obstacle Detection
Line Following

T2P2D - Toys to Physics to Design

Purdue University - Convergence Design Lab

Aug 2014 – Dec 2014

Research Assistant with Dr. Karthik Ramani.
The purpose of this project was to develop a framework to encourage a maker-based design mindset embedded in physics for K-12 students.
• Developed STEM-focused teaching "Engineering by Design" workshops for K-12 students to design simple toys and 3D print them.
• Benchmarked different open source CAD software and categorized them by ease-of-use.
• Manufactured prototypes using 3D printing technologies (Ultimaker 2, Makerbot).


Purdue University - Convergence Design Lab

Aug 2014 – Dec 2014

Research Assistant with Dr. Karthik Ramani.
Robotics serves education in many ways. The process of developing robotic solutions provides a rich and meaningful context for engaging students. In this project, we developed a modular robotics kit to animate crafted toys.
• Created a robotics kit which enables users to construct and animate their toys using everyday craft materials.
• Proposed new and innovative uses for the product using everyday objects such as cardboard, construction paper and spoons.
• Tested and gave feedback on various constructions and promoted brainstorming among users.

Digital Manufacturing

Case Study

Laser Cut Box

Columbia University

Jan 2021

The goal of this project was to perform software-driven fabrication. My partner and I wrote a program that asks the user for box dimensions, then generates an SVG file for laser-cutting and folding cardboard. This file can be imported into a laser-cutter software where the laser's power and speed settings are set for each line color. We selected three colors for our box design, one for cutting and two for engraving with different laser intensities.
YouTube | GitHub | Photos

Generative Design - Tealight Holder

Columbia University

Feb 2021

The goal of this project was to perform generative design for 3D printing by using software throughout the design process. I designed and 3D printed a lamp shade made entirely of a lattice design. I wrote a program that generated the lamp shade’s geometry procedurally and accommodated three LED tea-lights. The software used was OpenSCAD, which allowed me to output my file in STL format. This file could then be imported into a 3D printer slicer software in order to be 3D printed.
YouTube | GitHub | GrabCAD

Software-Controlled Embroidery

Columbia University

Mar 2021

The goal of this project was to perform software-controlled embroidery. I wrote a program that generated an embroidery design with multiple basic shapes and a parametric fractal shape. In order to perform over-stitching and to make the pattern stand out, all straight edges of the design were converted to a zig-zag pattern in the code. The program requests the user to input the desired complexity and outputs a JEF file for the user to visualize on Hatch. Finally, the pattern was sewn on a real garment using an automated embroidery machine (Janome MC9900). Our design added some complexity by using multiple thread types, thread colors and spacing between shapes.
YouTube | GitHub | Photos

Topology Optimization

Columbia University

Mar 2021

The goal of this project was to incorporate the optimization-driven design process into the traditional manufacturing process, by generating and analyzing design concepts to efficiently create optimal designs. Through this project, I provided a concept for table and chair to be designed using topology optimization tools and fabricated using additive manufacturing.
I proposed an optimal design (shape and topology) for a desk that is 30” high, 24” deep and 60” wide, and a chair with a back. I defined boundary conditions, assigned material properties (Nylon) and applied load cases for the topology optimization sequence. The chair is suitable for seating an adult weighing up to 150 KG, and the table can sustain the weight of the adult if they were to stand on it. To take full advantages of unique capabilities from AM processes, I used several design for additive manufacturing (DfAM) principles: overhang angle constraint of 30 degrees, minimal feature size, mass customization, and lattice optimization for low mass mechanical properties.
I ran an analysis on the result to verify the integrity, static behavior, strength, stiffness and stability of the design. The final table and chair design resulted in weight savings of 91%. Finally, I produced a rendering of the desk and the chair together, with the chair positioned where a person would be sitting on it while using the desk. This file could then be imported into a 3D printer slicer software in order to be printed.
Design Rendering | Project Report | Photo Gallery

Design Constraint
Topology Optimization
Lattice Optimization

Design Constraint
Topology Optimization
Lattice Optimization

Render with Human
Render in Room

Lattice Optimization

Columbia University

Apr 2021

The goal of this project was to redesign a product using a lattice. Lattice structures mimic atomic crystal lattice and have high strength, low mass mechanical properties. For this project, I wanted to solve a problem that made headlines in 2013 - a little after the Mars Curiosity Rover landed. NASA engineers began to notice significant wheel damage due to the unexpectedly harsh terrain, causing concern about the ability of the rover to drive far enough to complete its intended mission.
My solution was to design a protective lattice shell around the existing tire which would conform to the terrain and do not sink as much as rigid wheels. These new tires could also carry heavier payloads for the same given mass and volume. Since the shell is a lattice, it would weigh significantly less (thus costing less per launch) than a similar sized tire. This new tire would be capable of performing in a Martian or Lunar environment by absorbing energy from impacts at moderate to high speeds, allowing exploration vehicles to move at speeds significantly higher than the current Mars rovers. My design allows for the tire to be made with a wide range of materials because the forces are distributed across the lattice.
Design Rendering | Project Report | Photo Gallery

Original Design
Design Constraint
Lattice Optimization
Gradient Lattice

Landing Render
Render on Mars


Project LiT

University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign - HackIllinois Hackathon

Feb 2016

Received recognition for creating one of the best hardware hacks at Hack Illinois, one of the largest University Hackathons in the country with over 1000 participants. We created an internet connected wearable breathalyzer to warn people when they are over the alcohol permissible limit for driving. It uses an OLED panel that notifies you of your blood alcohol content and an RGB LED strip that alerts everyone around you if have crossed the legal limit, so your friends can stop you from driving or stop themselves from getting in the car with you. My contributions included implementing the engineering design process and writing code to integrate all the electrical components using an Arduino microcontroller. Project LiT won top 5 for best hardware hack out of 216 total submissions at the HackIllinois Hackathon at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
Project LiT | Pitch Deck | Photo Gallery

Project Green Light

Purdue University - BoilerMake Hackathon

Oct 2015

Project Green Light is a social initiative which helps people connect more easily. We struggle and often find it awkward to approach and meet new people in the real world. Over the weekend-long hackathon, my team and I wanted to design something new and bring it to life, and we believed that our product would revolutionize social interactions. We wanted to bring the comfort of interacting with people behind a screen to the real world, using a simple and unobtrusive system. We tried to solve the social engineering problem of finding seats in crowded locations with tables, by building an LED box with switches for occupied, silence or mingle statuses for each table. The beacon provides users with information such as table availability and status through data collected from the Arduino devices. In addition, we want to create a tool which can measure the rate of change in the willingness for people to socially interact with one another in any given environment. My contributions included collaborating on the design and build of the product, developing the product all the way from ideation to completion and working on the presentation and documentation for the project. Project Green Light won top 5 for best hack out of 84 total submissions at the BoilerMake Hackathon at Purdue University.
Project Green Light | Pitch Deck | Photo Gallery

Project BigDoc

Washington University in St. Louis - ArchHacks Hackathon

Nov 2016

Project BigDoc is a managed care solution that uses big data technologies to proactively prevent medical emergencies. Healthcare enterprises are currently investing a lot of money in personalized preventative care plans for people who lack access to basic healthcare due to lack of money, transportation or resources. I managed the engineering development process of the product. Generated and evaluated all the content around the idea from the ideation phase. Designed the solution and innovated to overcome challenges and find future uses
Project BigDoc | Pitch Deck | Photo Gallery

Data Analysis

COVID-19 Data Visualizer

Self-driven Project

Apr 2020 - Apr 2021

COVID-19 case data is the most important data right now. It’s the basis of how we’re seeing and measuring the impact of this virus in the world.
Tableau | GitHub | More Info

Spray Measurements & Analysis

Purdue University - Applied Laser Spectroscopy Lab

Aug 2015 – May 2016

Research Assistant with Dr. Sameer Naik.
• Analyzed airblast atomizer under atmospheric and high/low pressure conditions.
• Interpreted measurements of aviation liquid fuel sprays and studied the spray variation.

Architecture & Engineering

I have led over 25 projects (>$50 MM) for various agencies in the public sector and managed the projects through all aspects of the lifecycle, from conceptual design through project completion. I planned, delegated, monitored and maintained control of all aspects of the projects, and ensured that all projects are delivered on time, within budget and according to the project's scope of work. I supervised a multi-disciplinary team of 5 engineers and coordinated work between all trades. I understood complex project needs, provided reliable options and delivered cost-effective & energy efficient design solutions in a timely manner. I was also responsible for relationship management with the project owners, architects and contractors.

In addition to designing Mechanical (HVAC equipment - including chillers/boilers, ductwork, hydronic piping, steam piping and HVAC controls) systems, I also designed Plumbing (domestic cold and hot water, plumbing piping, sanitary drainage and gas), Electrical (power, interior lighting, exterior lighting, data, telecommunication and distribution), Fire Alarm (smoke/CO/heat detectors, digital fire alarm systems and panels) and Fire Protection (sprinkler and fire piping) systems. Some other clients I worked with are School District of Philadelphia (SDP) and NJ DPMC. I worked on several new additions and major renovations at educational facilities, correctional facilities, multi-family residential, mixed-use and office buildings. I strongly believe in quality engineering and sustainable design and strive to improve people’s lives by engaging in inclusive design that connects our communities and sustains our environment.

I managed all projects by following the engineering design process, where I started by filnding and responding to proposals, preparing fee estimates and creating technical writeups. When the project was awarded to our firm, I performed field surveys to assess conditions existing of existing systems and prepared Scope Reports with Findings and Recommendations, Calcuations and Construction Cost Estimates. Next, I worked on interdisciplinary Design Drawings in AutoCAD, typed up the Product Specifications and performed Quality Control on construction documents to ensure consistency with the project goals and to reduce cost. Throughout the process, I worked closely with my clients and responded to any concerns by the review team. I regularly performed heating and cooling load calculations and building energy modeling to determine design criteria and size system components. I am well-versed with my clients' design requirements, room planning standards and filing procedures (DOB, BCC and FDNY). I ensured the Contract Documents adhered to the applicable state and national codes and regulations, such as IBC, IMC, IFGC, NYC Building Code, NYC Mechanical Code, NYC Energy Code, ASHRAE 90.1 and NFPA-13. Moreover, I answered any RFIs, reviewed shop drawings and submittals from the contractors, and issued addendums and bulletins as necessary. Lastly, I prepared final punchlists and invoiced for the work that has been completed.

Helping Students Return to School

NYC School Construction Authority

May 2020 - Apr 2021

As local and federal governments started looking for ways to reopen schools, it was clear that much more needed to be done to assure parents that their kids will be safe when they return to school. Over the summer, the NYC Department of Education held several engagement sessions with families to learn their concerns and provide updates on the steps the city has been taking to mainatin a healthy learning environment.

As an MEP Design Consultant, it was obvious to me that a properly maintained and operated heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system can reduce the spread of viruses. Alongside proper handwashing and social distancing, air filtration, humidity levels, percentage of outside air and air distribution are all key to improving productivity and health in indoor spaces.

In late August, Mayor Bill de Blasio and the NYC School Construction Authority (SCA) started forming Ventilation Action Teams (In the news: NY1, CBS and ABC) to ensure air flow in all student and staff spaces across each of the 1,700 schools in NYC. The goal of this project was to enable students and staff to return to schools in September 2020 by inspecting the existing Ventilation systems. Classrooms deemed unfit either had their issues addressed, or the spaces were taken offline until the systems were made functional.
As one of the Action Team members, I surveyed numerous schools across NYC, including New Dorp High School in Staten Island.
Click here to see the checklist results and here to see DOE's reopening plan for this school. * All files are available for download directly from DOE's website.

Making sense of the data:
Per the 2014 NYC Mechanical Code (Table 403.3), classrooms must bring in at least 10 CFM of outside air per person and at least 0.12 CFM of outside air per square-foot of space. Similarly, staff offices must bring in at least 5 CFM per person and 0.06 CFM per square-foot.
The old Mechanical Code (prior to 2008) allowed spaces with operable windows to be used for natural ventilation based on the index of ventilation. However, the new code (2008 and 2014) allows operable windows to be used for natural ventilation if the windows provide 4% openable area. If the thresholds to use natural window ventilation are not met, mechanical ventilation (exhaust fans) would have to be coupled with the operable windows.
For windowless buildings or rooms not located against the perimeter with openable windows, the ventilation would come from the mechanical supply system.
I'll leave you with the below excerpt from the code:
102.4.1 Minor additions, alterations, renovations and repairs to existing mechanical systems shall meet the provisions for new construction, unless such work is done in the same manner and arrangement as was in the existing system, is not hazardous and is approved.

The next phase of the project was to provide immediate recommendations to repair the ventilation systems and make long-term recommendations for future improvements. The teams prepared scope reports, construction cost estimates and detail design drawings to make the air handling systems operable either through reparation of defective parts or a complete replacement. As part of one of those teams, some examples of recommendations I made were airstream disinfection, increasing the amount of fresh air intake, selecting exhaust fans to maintain a negative air pressure in the room, and displacement ventilation (in which cooler air enters from below and lifts contaminants). Some non-HVAC recommendations were installing antimicrobial polymer surfaces or copper alloy surfaces which naturally kill viruses.

Before Before: July 20, 2020
After After: August 31, 2020
IS 49 (R049) | Staten Island, NY (748 students and 141 staff)

Pool Restoration

NYC School Construction Authority

May 2019 - June 2020

Provided engineering design services to the NYC School Construction Authority (SCA) for the M440 interior restoration and reconstruction of the existing defective pool foundation walls at the sub-cellar and cellar levels along with interior renovations of the adjacent pool areas, bathrooms and natatorium at the cellar level. In addition, a new elevator will be provided at the first-floor level down to the pool area for accessibility compliance.
Located in Manhattan, M440 (also known as James Baldwin School / Bayard Rustin Educational Complex) was constructed circa 1930’s. The building is located at 351 W 18th Street, and contains an approximate student population of 2,130 students, serving 09 through 12 grades.
The overall project objective is to address the conditions of the existing reinforced pool plunge structure measuring 75 feet x 28 feet (96,200 gallon capacity) located at the sub-cellar level, including active water leakage through the plunge walls, and multiple cracks at the enameled brick of the pool-side finished surface, and provide accessibility for all new spaces, including the renovated Natatorium, adjacent toilets, showers, lockers, and offices. Also, provied new water filtration, dehumidification, ventilation and steam condensate systems for the natatorium.
I designed ductwork and sized new De-humidification unit and Air-Handling units to serve the natatorium and locker rooms based on design criteria per IMC, NYC MC. Designed and performed calculations for new pool water filtration system, hot water boiler and new plumbing fixtures for locker room and toilets. Led a team of engineers, architects, and draftsmen as prime engineer on this project.
The project's construction cost was $12,027,000.

Special Education Classroom

NYC School Construction Authority

Jan 2019 - Sep 2019

Provided engineering design services for the NYCSCA to convert an existing first floor classroom (Room 136) into a new Home Economics / Activities of Daily Living Room (ADL).
Located in Brooklyn, K753 (also known as Aveyron Academy) has over 65 students who have been determined to be at-risk in their daily living skills for numerous reasons including autism, emotional disturbance, seizure disorders, cognitive delays or other economic or language-based difficulties.
The overall project objective was to transform the existing space of current living classroom (Room 136) into a home economics classroom that would enable at-risk students to improve their social, emotional, functional and vocabulary skills through utilization of real-world scenarios and by having access to various space functions including a full working kitchen with sinks, cabinets, counter work space, stools, oven, stove, microwave, and dishwasher; a laundry station with a washing machine and dryer; a living room sitting TV area; and a general learning area with computer stations.
Students in this innovative classroom environment are now able to cook hot foods, wash and dry clothing, fold and put away clothing, iron, wash and dry dishes, learn how to mend clothing, prepare and implement a shopping list and budget, and clean and keep a tidy studio apartment. Teachers are also able to monitor the students in a friendly and comfortable setting based on the students’ specific needs.
Our design concept not only allowed students with disabilities to overcome various difficulties in order to succeed in school, but also helped them to develop the necessary skills that prepared them for post-secondary independence. Our design solution provided students with multi-sensory and practical experience for navigating and living in the community.
Addressing the real-world needs of students who have been determined to be at-risk in their daily living skills for numerous reasons including autism, emotional disturbance, seizure disorders, cognitive delays or other economic or language-based difficulties, my team at Princeton Engineering Services and the NYC School Construction Authority (SCA) developed a new typology of educational space, the Home Economics/Activities of Daily Living Room (ADL).
This new typology is geared to not only allow students with disabilities to overcome various difficulties in order to succeed in school, but also help them to develop the necessary skills that will prepare them for post-secondary independence. Our design solution provides students with multi-sensory experiences that will provide practical experience for navigating and living in the community.
The project's construction cost was $490,000.

Technology Lab

NYC School Construction Authority

Jan 2019 - Sep 2019

Provided engineering design services for the NYCSCA to convert an existing third floor classroom (Room 343) into a new technology lab.
Located in the Bronx, X593 currently shares the building (X145) with other schools and has a bilingual school population of 47 students.
The overall project objective was for SYSTRA to transform the existing classroom (Room 343) into a technology lab that would enable the school to use the space as a high-end technology lab and provide flexibility to transform the space into a regular bilingual classroom to accommodate up to 28 students. The new technology lab included a new smart board, wireless mac laptops and associated work stations.
Students in this innovative classroom environment are now able to receive personal attention from teachers. Our layout was designed to support a friendly and comfortable setting based on the students’ specific bilingual needs.
The project's construction cost was $475,000.

Building Condition Assessment

Princeton University

Jan 2019 - Sep 2019

Princeton Engineering Services was selected by Princeton University to perform a $2 million campus wide condition assessment survey that included 340 building structures. As a member of the assessment team, PES evaluated all major building systems including mechanical and electrical systems, fire and life safety systems, and exterior site features including walkways, parking, and landscaping. The purpose of each evaluation was to identify deferred maintenance and capital renewal needs to bring each structure up to code. Buildings included in the condition assessment included the following. The MEP systems consisted of multiple air handling units, associated return and exhaust fans, steam to hot water converters, chilled and hot water pumps and domestic steam to hot water converters.