Digital Manufacturing

Case Study

Columbia University

Apr 2021

For this project, I was hired by a management consulting firm to evaluate the application of Additive Manufacturing in the Automotive industry. In this case study, I present a specific example of how Additive Manufacturing is being used today, analyze the viability of the application, and offer recommendations for future direction.
Large automotive companies have been using additive manufacturing technologies to rapidly produce prototype parts for over three decades. Today however, automobile manufacturers are using the technology to reduce the weight of many structural components to make their vehicles more efficient and produce less pollution.
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Laser Cut Box

Columbia University

Jan 2021

The goal of this project was to perform software-driven fabrication. My partner and I wrote a program that asks the user for box dimensions, then generates an SVG file for laser-cutting and folding cardboard. This file can be imported into a laser-cutter software where the laser's power and speed settings are set for each line color. We selected three colors for our box design, one for cutting and two for engraving with different laser intensities.
YouTube | GitHub | Photos

https://www.instagram.com/tv/CLhbYiuJZ0U
https://youtu.be/7u0MZNJsSTI
https://twitter.com/CUSEAS/status/1359214029131165698


Generative Design - Tealight Holder

Columbia University

Feb 2021

The goal of this project was to perform generative design for 3D printing by using software throughout the design process. I designed and 3D printed a lamp shade made entirely of a lattice design. I wrote a program that generated the lamp shade’s geometry procedurally and accommodated three LED tea-lights. The software used was OpenSCAD, which allowed me to output my file in STL format. This file could then be imported into a 3D printer slicer software in order to be 3D printed.
YouTube | GitHub | GrabCAD



Software-Controlled Embroidery

Columbia University

Mar 2021

The goal of this project was to perform software-controlled embroidery. I wrote a program that generated an embroidery design with multiple basic shapes and a parametric fractal shape. In order to perform over-stitching and to make the pattern stand out, all straight edges of the design were converted to a zig-zag pattern in the code. The program requests the user to input the desired complexity and outputs a JEF file for the user to visualize on Hatch. Finally, the pattern was sewn on a real garment using an automated embroidery machine (Janome MC9900). Our design added some complexity by using multiple thread types, thread colors and spacing between shapes.
YouTube | GitHub | Photos



Topology Optimization

Columbia University

Mar 2021

The goal of this project was to incorporate the optimization-driven design process into the traditional manufacturing process, by generating and analyzing design concepts to efficiently create optimal designs. Through this project, I provided a concept for table and chair to be designed using topology optimization tools and fabricated using additive manufacturing.
I proposed an optimal design (shape and topology) for a desk that is 30” high, 24” deep and 60” wide, and a chair with a back. I defined boundary conditions, assigned material properties (Nylon) and applied load cases for the topology optimization sequence. The chair is suitable for seating an adult weighing up to 150 KG, and the table can sustain the weight of the adult if they were to stand on it. To take full advantages of unique capabilities from AM processes, I used several design for additive manufacturing (DfAM) principles: overhang angle constraint of 30 degrees, minimal feature size, mass customization, and lattice optimization for low mass mechanical properties.
I ran an analysis on the result to verify the integrity, static behavior, strength, stiffness and stability of the design. The final table and chair design resulted in weight savings of 91%. Finally, I produced a rendering of the desk and the chair together, with the chair positioned where a person would be sitting on it while using the desk. This file could then be imported into a 3D printer slicer software in order to be printed.
Design Rendering | Project Report | Photo Gallery

Design Constraint
Topology Optimization
Lattice Optimization
Analysis

Design Constraint
Topology Optimization
Lattice Optimization
Analysis

Render with Human
Render in Room


Lattice Optimization

Columbia University

Apr 2021

The goal of this project was to redesign a product using a lattice. Lattice structures mimic atomic crystal lattice and have high strength, low mass mechanical properties. For this project, I wanted to solve a problem that made headlines in 2013 - a little after the Mars Curiosity Rover landed. NASA engineers began to notice significant wheel damage due to the unexpectedly harsh terrain, causing concern about the ability of the rover to drive far enough to complete its intended mission.
My solution was to design a protective lattice shell around the existing tire which would conform to the terrain and do not sink as much as rigid wheels. These new tires could also carry heavier payloads for the same given mass and volume. Since the shell is a lattice, it would weigh significantly less (thus costing less per launch) than a similar sized tire. This new tire would be capable of performing in a Martian or Lunar environment by absorbing energy from impacts at moderate to high speeds, allowing exploration vehicles to move at speeds significantly higher than the current Mars rovers. My design allows for the tire to be made with a wide range of materials because the forces are distributed across the lattice.
Design Rendering | Project Report | Photo Gallery

Original Design
Design Constraint
Lattice Optimization
Gradient Lattice

Landing Render
Render on Mars